Universal Kriging

One of the assumptions made in kriging is that the data being estimated are stationary. That is, as you move from one region to the next in the scatter point set, the average value of the scatter points is relatively constant. Whenever there is a significant spatial trend in the data values such as a sloping surface or a localized flat region, this assumption is violated. In such cases, the stationary condition can be temporarily imposed on the data by use of a drift term. The drift is a simple polynomial function that models the average value of the scatter points. The residual is the difference between the drift and the actual values of the scatter points. Since the residuals should be stationary, kriging is performed on the residuals and the interpolated residuals are added to the drift to compute the estimated values. Using a drift in this fashion is often called "universal kriging."

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